Category Archives: Health Care

Gastritis – Causes, Symptoms, and Complications

Gastritis Causes and Symptoms

Gastritis is a general term for a group of disorders that have one thing in common: inflammation of the lining of the stomach. The inflammation of gastritis is usually the result of infection with the same bacteria that cause most stomach ulcers or regular use of certain pain relievers. Excessive alcohol consumption can also contribute to gastritis.

Gastritis Causes and Symptoms

Gastritis Symptoms – The signs and symptoms of gastritis include:

  • Aching or burning pain (indigestion) in the upper abdomen that gets worse or better with eating
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Feeling stuffed after eating
  • Gastritis might not always show signs and symptoms

Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining. Weaknesses or injuries in the mucosal barrier that protects the stomach lining leading to digestive juices damaging and inflaming the stomach lining. Several diseases and conditions can increase the risk of gastritis, including inflammatory diseases such as Crohn’s disease.

Risk Factors

The factors that increase the risk of gastritis include

Bacterial infection. Although infection with Helicobacter pylori is a very common human infection worldwide, only a few people with the infection develop gastritis or other gastrointestinal disorders.

Doctors believe that susceptibility to the bacteria can be inherited or caused by lifestyle choices such as smoking and diet.

Taking painkillers regularly

Pain relievers commonly known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, AnaproxDS), can cause acute gastritis and chronic gastritis. Regular use of these painkillers or taking too many of these medications can deplete an important compound that helps maintain the protective lining of the stomach.

Advancing Age

Older adults are at higher risk of gastritis because the lining of the stomach thins with age and older adults are more likely to have H. pylori infection or autoimmune diseases than younger people.

Excessive consumption of alcohol

Alcohol can irritate and erode the lining of the stomach, making the stomach more susceptible to digestive juices.


Severe stress from major surgery, injury, burns, or serious infection can cause acute gastritis.

Cancer treatment

Chemotherapy, drugs, or radiation therapy can also increase the risk of gastritis.

When your own body attacks the cells in your stomach

This type of gastritis is called autoimmune gastritis and occurs when your body attacks the cells that make up the lining of your stomach. This reaction can weaken your stomach’s protective barrier. Autoimmune gastritis is more common in people with other autoimmune conditions, such as Hashimoto’s disease and type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune gastritis can also be associated with vitamin B-12 deficiency.

Other diseases and conditions

Gastritis can be associated with other conditions, including HIV/AIDS, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, sarcoidosis, and parasitic infections.


Gastritis, if not treated, can lead to stomach ulcers and stomach bleeding. In rare cases, some forms of chronic gastritis may increase your risk of STOMACH CANCER, particularly if you have severe thinning of the lining of the stomach and changes in the cells lining the stomach.

When to see a doctor

Almost everyone has had an episode of indigestion and upset stomach at some point. Most cases of indigestion are short-lived and do not require medical attention. Contact your doctor if you have signs and symptoms of gastritis for a week or more.

See a doctor right away if you experience severe pain, vomiting, loose motions, or feel light-headed or dizzy.

Tell your doctor if your upset stomach occurs after taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines, especially aspirin or other pain relievers.

If you vomit blood, have blood in your stools, or have stools that are black, see your doctor immediately to determine the cause.

Diarrhea – Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention

Diarrhea causes and Prevention

Diarrhea is characterized by irregular, watery, or more frequent bowel motions. It could be present by itself or in combination with other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, stomach discomfort, or weight loss.

The good news is that diarrhea typically only lasts a few days. However, diarrhea that persists for more than a few days or weeks typically points to another issue, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), or a more serious condition, such as a persistent infection, celiac disease, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

The typical signs and symptoms of Diarrhea include loose and watery stools, abdominal cramps, and dehydration.

Adults must visit a physician if signs and symptoms last longer than two days.

If you are an adult, and you have the following symptoms:

  • Dehydration
  • Severe abdominal or rectal pain
  • Red or black colored stool
  • Fever above 102 degrees Fahrenheit (39 degrees)

You should see a specialist doctor immediately.

With a fever, diarrhea can quickly lead to dehydration, especially in young children.

Call your doctor if your child’s diarrhea does not improve within 24 hours of onset – and is also associated with the following symptoms:

  • Fever above 39°C
  • Crying without tears
  • Bloody or black stools
  • Drowsiness, unresponsiveness or irritability, dimpled appearance of the abdomen, eyes, or cheeks.

Diarrhea Causes and Prevention

Causes of Diarrhea

Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of diseases and conditions, including:


Norwalk virus (also known as norovirus), enteric adenoviruses, astrovirus, cytomegalovirus, and viral hepatitis are all viruses that can cause diarrhea. Rotavirus is a common cause of acute diarrhea in children. The virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has also been linked to gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Parasites and bacteria

Diarrhea is caused by exposure to pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli or parasites through contaminated food or water. When visiting developing countries, diarrhea caused by bacteria and parasites is commonly referred to as traveler’s diarrhea. Clostridioides difficile (also known as C. diff) is another type of bacterium that can cause diarrhea after taking antibiotics or while hospitalized


Many medications, including antibiotics, can result in diarrhea. Antibiotics treat infections by killing harmful bacteria, but they also kill beneficial bacteria. This disrupts the natural balance of bacteria in your intestines, resulting in diarrhea or a secondary infection like C. diff. Anti-cancer medications and magnesium-containing antacids are also known to cause diarrhea.

Lactose sensitivity

Lactose is a type of sugar that is found in milk and other dairy products. Lactose-intolerant individuals experience diarrhea after consuming dairy products. Lactose intolerance can worsen with age because levels of the enzyme that aids in lactose digestion decline with age.


Fructose is a natural sugar found in fruits and honey. Certain beverages may contain it as a sweetener. People who have problems digesting fructose can get diarrhea.

Artificial sweeteners such as mannitol, erythritol, and sorbitol can also cause diarrhea in otherwise healthy people. People who eat chewing gum and other sugar-free products can develop diarrhea.

Prevention (Prevention of infectious diarrhea)

Washing hands to prevent the spread of infection prevents contagious diarrhea.  To ensure proper hand washing:

Wash your hands: before and after preparing food; after handling raw meat; after using the toilet, after changing nappies; after sneezing or coughing, and blowing your nose.

Lather the soap for 30 seconds. After applying soap to your hands, rub your hands for at least 20 seconds. That’s how long it takes to sing “Happy Birthday” twice.

If hand washing is not possible, use hand sanitizer. If you can’t get to the sink, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Apply a hand sanitizer such as hand lotion and cover the front and back of your hands.

Use products with an alcohol content of 60% or more.

The vaccine is one of two licensed vaccines that can protect children against rotavirus, the most common of diarrhea.

The leading cause of viral diarrhea in children is rotavirus. Enquire with your doctor about your child’s vaccinations.

Traveler’s diarrhea prevention People who travel to countries with poor sanitation and contaminated food are more likely to get diarrhea.

To lower the risk

Take care of what you eat. Consume warm, well-prepared food. Unless you can peel them yourself, avoid eating raw fruits and vegetables. Avoid raw or undercooked meat and dairy products as well. Take care of what you drink. Drink bottled water, soda, beer, or wine in their original containers. Avoid using tap water or ice cubes. You can also brush your teeth with bottled water. When showering, keep your mouth closed.

Coffee and tea, which are made with hot water, are probably safe. Keep in mind that alcohol and caffeine can aggravate diarrhea.

Inquire with your doctor about antibiotics. If you’re going to a developing country for an extended period of time, consult your doctor about antibiotics, especially if you have a weakened immune system.

Check for travel advisories. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention maintains a website for travelers’ health that includes disease warnings for various countries. If you plan to travel outside of your country of origin, look for warnings and risk-reduction tips there.

Common But Preventable Causes of GI Disorders?

Common causes of stomach discomfort By Dr. Datta Ram U

Digestive health is important for your overall health. It is not always the disorders that can cause GI health issues, but your lifestyle factors too can play an important role in preventing the onset of some of the common GI disorders. The following are some of those factors:

Being Stressed

Stress can be one of the most common reasons for your abdominal discomfort. If you are under constant mental stress, it affects the health of your digestive system. Stress disturbs the balance of gut microbiota. Therefore, your brain has a very strong or established link with your digestive system – the brain GI axis. There is always a bi-directional communication between your brain and the GI tract. Your digestive tract also has more neurons. If a person remains in stress for long, there is a possibility of a wide range of digestive tract symptoms – such as alterations in the balance of normal microbial flora of the stomach, abdominal cramping, bloating, inflammation, loss of appetite, weight loss or weight gain.

Not Drinking enough Water

Water is an elixir of life because without water survival of human beings is not possible. If you don’t drink water or your water intake is inadequate, then you will become prone to Digestive track issues. Water helps in digestion of food by helping breakdown food and help intestines to absorb nutrients most effectively and faster. The risk or possibility of digestive tract disorders increases if your water intake is not adequate. Water helps improve assimilation and absorption of food, removal of toxins and cleansing your digestive system. It helps soften stool and prevent constipation. To prevent all types of common GI health issues, you must – first of all – drink enough water throughout the day.

Taking a Low Fiber Diet

Fiber is a plant-based complex carbohydrates. It is very important for your digestive system’s health. Fiber helps in digestion of food and making you full. Your gut microbial flora needs fiber – certain types of fiber to flourish. Your microbiota – the trillions of bacteria that inhabit your large intestine provides numerous health benefits. The good sources of dietary fiber are vegetables, beans, legumes, whole grains and fruits. The daily recommended fiber intake for women is around 25 grams and for men it is around 38 grams. Older men and women should consume slightly lesser amount of fiber than the daily recommended values. Fiber is very important in terms of reducing gas formation, constipation and bloating. It helps ease digestion, reduce abdominal pain and even minimize the risk of colon cancer.

Common Causes of Stomach Discomfort – Inactive Lifestyle

Sound sleep, proper eating habits and activity are important not only for your overall health, but also for your digestive health. Therefore, experts recommend a combination of proper diet, exercise and sleep. They also recommend not to take food that cause inflammation.

Eating a lot of dairy foods

Milk, milk-based products, and cheese have plenty of proteins and fats. They take longer time to digest and also have pro-inflammatory effect. Therefore, taking large amounts of dairy products can cause constipation, gas, bloating and abdominal cramps.

Bottom Line

Medical side effects, excessive use of laxatives, dietary supplements, functional stress, pregnancy, systemic issues and inflammation can also cause abdominal problems. These are some of the common but preventable causes of gastrointestinal disorders. Timely approach to a specialist doctor, proper medication, lifestyle changes, a set sleep and wake up routine, proper eating habits, drinking enough water and stress management can help prevent these disorders.

Acidity Problems – When to Take Action!

Acidity problems: The gastric glands of your stomach produce and secrete acid – which is necessary to digest the food. When excess acid is produced than needed for the digestion process, the condition is known as acidity. In some cases, normal stomach acid flows back to the esophagus. This condition is known as acid reflux (GERD). The most common symptom of this condition is a burning sensation and chest pain in the breastbone.

What are the common causes of acidity?

Acidity causes: In a majority of cases, lifestyle-related factors are responsible for acidity and stomach problems. They include the following:

  • Excessive eating (overeating)
  • Unhealthy eating habits
  • Excessive consumption of tea or coffee
  • Eating at irregular times or skipping meals
  • Eating just before sleeping
  • High intake of table salt
  • Consuming a sugary diet or a diet low in dietary fiber
  • Consumption of spicy food
  • Excessive consumption of fat-rich foods such as fried foods, doughnuts, pizza, extremely oily, fatty, and spicy foods
  • Excessive intake of carbonated drinks, caffeinated beverages, and soft drinks

Use of medications

Regular use of pain-relieving medications, over-the-counter medications, other temporary medications as well as prescription medicines can cause acidity problems. For instance, medications such as antibiotics, medicines for controlling high blood pressure, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; anxiety and depression medications can cause acidity.

What other disorders can cause acidity problems?

Irritable bowel syndrome, peptic ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and other conditions can also lead to acidity.

What are the other causes of acidity?

  • Eating gas-forming vegetables such as cabbage or cauliflower
  • Excessive consumption of non-vegetarian food
  • Lack of physical exercise
  • Frequent consumption of alcohol
  • Smoking
  • Excessive stress
  • Insomnia (Lack of sleep)
  • Mental health issues

Do you know – people who have dental health issues, connective tissue disorders, diabetes and asthma, and breathing problems – such as sleep apnea are more prone to acidity? In women, those who are approaching menopause, obese women, depressed women, and even pregnant women suffer from acidity.

What are the symptoms of Acidity and Acid Reflux Disease?

Acidity Symptoms are not the same in all people. Bloating blenching, and gas formation indigestion is the most common symptoms of acidity. However, symptoms differ from person to person. For instance, chest pain and burning sensation below the breast bone are the most common symptoms of acid reflux. The other symptoms of acidity that are uncommon may include:

  • Indigestion
  • Constipation
  • Nausea
  • Restlessness
  • Heaviness in the stomach after taking meals
  • Post-meal discomfort and sometimes pain
  • Burning sensation and pain in the stomach
  • Bad breath
  • Burning sensation and pain in the chest
  • Frequent hiccups or burping for no apparent reason
  • Difficulty in swallowing food
  • A feeling of food being stuck in the throat
  • Burning sensation and pain in the throat
  • Bitter-taste or prolonged sour taste in the mouth due to acid reflux (regurgitation)

Bottom Line

Acidity problems once in a while are alright as you can set it right with some slight lifestyle modification – eating and sleeping habits. But when you frequently suffer from acidity and indigestion or any other acidity-related symptoms, there should be a cause for concern. If a person frequently suffers from bouts of acidity – what does it mean – say – he or she has symptoms lasting for two or more days per week – on a regular basis. It means that there might be an underlying cause associated with acidity. It is therefore advisable that they should consult a specialist doctor without wasting any time.

Hepatitis Causing Viruses (Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E)

Liver disease viral hepatitis

Liver problems can be caused due to many reasons. some of which may include consumption of alcohol, obesity (accumulation of fat in the liver), excessive use of certain medications, and viruses. Let us try to understand the different types of viruses that cause liver diseases. The disease progresses silently. However, there are some common signs and symptoms of liver disease – such as:

  • Yellow eyes and skin
  • Vomiting
  • Swollen legs
  • Dark colored urine

The viruses that cause liver disease can spread through blood, semen, impure water, or through contact with the person who is infected. The other causes of liver diseases may include:

  • Sharing of needles while being injected
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Family history     

Liver Disease Viral Hepatitis                      

Hepatitis A – This type of liver disease spreads through contaminated food and water. It can also spread through dirty hands when the infected person cooks food for other family members. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, low-grade fever, and loss of appetite. A person with hepatitis A must get the proper intake of water eat a balanced diet and avoid the consumption of alcohol. Rest, medication and comprehensive treatment ensure complete recovery within a few months.

Hepatitis B – it is caused when the virus (HBV) is transmitted from one person to the other. It spreads through blood (use of unsterile syringes, needles, and blood transfusion), semen, and other body fluids. Chronic HBV infections may lead to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, or liver failure.  Hepatitis B can be easily prevented by getting vaccinated. It is the most common vaccine-preventable liver disease.

Hepatitis C – Hepatitis c is also caused by a virus (HCV) that attacks the liver and causes inflammation.  People who are infected by hepatitis c are unaware as there are no symptoms. The appearance of symptoms may take many years.

symptoms may include – loss of body weight, dark color urine, and easy bruising.

It can be prevented by avoiding the usage of illicit drugs and avoiding unprotected sex. Be careful while getting a piercing or while getting tattooing done.

Hepatitis D – may be caused if you have hepatitis b. The infection can be an acute, short-term or long-term, and chronic liver disease. It is a serious liver disease and may lead to lifelong liver damage.

Symptoms may include

  • Dark colored urine
  • Tiredness
  • Yellow eyes and skin
  • Pain in belly

There is no vaccine to prevent liver disease and viral hepatitis D.

Hepatitis E – The common cause of hepatitis E is contaminated drinking water.

Symptoms may include

  • jaundice
  • stomach pain
  • loss of appetite

Many people with hepatitis E do not have any symptoms, especially children. It resolves on its own within five to six weeks with supportive care, rehydration, rest, and medication.

Prevention of Hepatitis

  • Avoid excess alcohol consumption
  • Follow a balanced diet
  • Exercise on a regular basis
  • Manage a proper body weight
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle
  • Wash your hands with soap and water it prevents the spread of hepatitis A & E.

Avoid eating too many refined sugars as they may lead to fat build-up in the liver and can cause liver diseases.

Use medications judiciously

Don’t share items like syringes, needles, razors, and blades because hepatitis B and C – both serious and infectious liver diseases spread through blood and body fluids. Avoid high-risk sexual activities and multiple sex partners.

Be careful! Some drugs, dietary supplements, and herbs can damage your liver. For instance, comfrey, kava, and ephedra are known to cause liver damage.

Don’t breathe in toxins – home cleaning products, aerosol products, and some insecticides have chemicals that can damage your liver – avoid such products.

If you have any additional concerns regarding liver disease or viral hepatitis, then contact Dr. Datta Ram U