Intestinal Obstruction – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Intestinal Obstruction Treatment

Intestinal obstruction and Ileus: Intestinal obstruction is a partial or complete blockage of the bowel.  If intestine is blocked, the contents of the intestine can not pass through it. The blockage can occur in the small or the large intestine. It can be partial or total blockage.

Large bowel obstruction

There is a blockage in the large intestine. It can be due to a scar tissue, a tumor or something else. It is a medical emergency condition wherein the risk of stool and gas build up and intestine rupturing is high.

Intestinal Obstruction Causes

Causes of obstruction of the bowel may be due to a mechanical cause, which means the blockage can be due to intestinal adhesions, twisting of the intestines, intussusception, tumors, stones, swallowed objects, and hernias.

Mechanical Blockage of Colon or Large Intestine

The blockage can be due to diverticulitis, volvulus and intussusception, colon cancer, ovarian cancer, adhesions from surgeries or pelvic infections; stool impaction, the narrowing of colon (stricture) due to inflammation or scarring.

Non-mechanical blockage (functional intestinal obstruction)

A temporary blockage is known as ileus (pseudo-obstruction). The causes include electrolyte imbalances, certain medicines, appendicitis or gastroenteritis and pelvic or abdominal surgery. The other causes may include diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis and other nerve and muscle disorders that cause nerve injuries.

Paralyzed ileus, also called pseudo-obstruction, is one of the major causes of intestinal inhibition in babies and children.

Signs and Symptoms of Bowel Obstruction

The signs and symptoms of bowel obstruction may include abdominal lump(distention), abdominal wholeness, gas, abdominal pain, severe bloating and cramping, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, inability to pass gas or stool, decreased appetite and abdominal swelling.

Bowel Obstruction Diagnosis

A gastroenterologist examines you by pushing on your abdomen and then listening to the sounds using a stethoscope. The doctor may order other tests such as blood tests – liver and kidney function test, blood counts, levels of electrolytes, CT scan and colonoscopy. The diagnosis is made based on the results of the tests, scanning reports and symptoms.

Intestinal Obstruction Treatment

Partial intestinal obstruction due to adhesions or scarring may need medical support to clear up. However, large bowel obstructions can be treated by a variety of treatment options including medications, IV fluid replacement, nasogastric tube and barium enema. Surgical intervention becomes pertinent in large bowel obstructions due to adhesions, tumors or hernia. In some surgical cases, a segment of the dead intestine is removed during surgery to treat the obstruction.

Treatment involves placing a tube through the nose into the stomach or intestine. This relieves abdominal bloating(bloating) and vomiting. Intestinal torsion can be treated by fitting a tube into the rectum. If catheterization doesn’t relieve symptoms surgery may be needed to clear the blockage. Surgery may also be necessary if there are signs of bowel tissue death.


Prevention – Prevention depends on the cause. Treating conditions that can cause blockage, similar as excrescences and hernias, can reduce the threat. Certain blocking causes cannot be prevented.

Bottom Line

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Intestinal obstruction can become life-threatening and serious if ruptures. The condition leads to inflammation and infection of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis). Severe abdominal pain and fever develops. It is a life-threatening emergency condition that requires emergency surgery. For intestinal obstruction treatment, meet Dr. Datta Ram U.

Best doctor for fissure in Hyderabad

Best doctor for fissure in Hyderabad

Dr. Datta Ram explains everything about anal fissure that you always want to know.

ANAL FISSURES – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Anal Fissure: A small tear in the thin, moist tissue that lines the anus is known as anal fissure. It causes pain and bleeding with bowel movements. Anal fissures can occur in people of any age. In many cases, they get better with some home-based remedies such as warm-water bath sitz; increasing fiber intake; taking medications. Surgery may be recommended in some cases.

What are the causes of anal fissures?

Anal fissure causes include:

  • Constipation
  • Passing large and hard stools
  • Straining during bowel movements
  • Childbirth (women)
  • Long-lasting diarrhea
  • Anal intercourse

What are the symptoms of anal fissure?

Anal Fissure symptoms may include:

  • A crack or tear in the skin around the anus
  • A skin tag or small lump in the skin near the fissure
  • Bright red blood on stool or on toilet paper after a bowel movement
  • Pain during and after bowel movements

What are the risk factors for anal fissure?

 The factors that may increase the risk of anal fissure include:

  Age: Common in infants and middle-aged adults.

  Crohn’s disease: It can make the lining of anal canal susceptible to tearing.

  Childbirth: The risk of anal fissure increases after childbirth in women.

Constipation: Passing hard and bulky stools and straining during bowel movements can increase the risk of tearing anal skin.

Anal intercourse increases the risk of anal fissures.

 What happens if you don’t treat anal fissures?

Chronic anal fissure fails to heal up to several weeks – may be up to six to eight weeks. It needs comprehensive treatment.

Untreated fissure and fissure that extends into the ring of muscles that keeps anus closed may become problematic. Once a fissure enters into the internal anal sphincter, it becomes difficult for it to heal. When this happens, you may need medicines to ease the discomfort. And to reduce the pain or remove the fissure, you will need surgery.


The treatment for anal fissure depends on the severity of the condition and associated symptoms. The non-surgical approaches may include external application of nitroglycerin if other conservative approaches fail to give any relief. In addition, doctors may also prescribe topical anesthetic creams to relieve pain.

Surgery: If conservative treatment approaches fail to give any results, your surgical gastroenterologist may recommend surgery. The doctor will perform lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS). If the symptoms are severe, then this procedure may help relieve pain, reduce spasm and promote healing.

Anal Fistula Symptoms and Treatment

Fistula treatment in Hyderabad by Dr. Datta Ram U

Anal Fistula – The glands lining the anus from inside makes mucus. When these glands get clogged, they become infected leading to an abscess.

Fistula is a small tunnel or channel that develops in the anal region. It is often a result of an infection that causes a collection of pus (abscess) in the nearby anal tissue. A small channel is left behind when the pus drains away. Anal fistula causes very unpleasant and disgusting symptoms including skin irritation, pain, bleeding, and oozing of pus. These symptoms do not get better on their own. In most cases, surgery is recommended to treat anal fistula.

Anal Fistula Symptoms

The signs and symptoms associated with anal fistula include:

  • Bowel incontinence – difficulty in controlling bowel movements
  • Passing blood and pus during bowel movements
  • Inflammation, redness, and swelling around the anus
  • Fever – if an abscess develops
  • Chills and a feeling of fatigue
  • Smelly discharge from near the anus
  • Skin irritation around the anus
  • Persistent, nagging, and throbbing pain that may become worse with cough, movement, sitting, or moving around.

What causes an anal fistula?

Anal fistula causes: Anal abscess is the main reason behind the development of anal fistula. Most of the time, an anal fistula may result when the abscess doesn’t heal properly.

An anal fistula may also develop less commonly as a consequence of a long-term skin condition (hidradenitis suppurative) that causes scarring and abscesses near the anus. The other less common causes of the anal fistula may include diverticulitis, Crohn’s disease, HIV infection, trauma, radiation treatment, tuberculosis, cancer, and also as a result of complications of surgery near the anus.

Diagnosis of Anal Fistula

Your gastro surgeon examines the area around your anus and looks for an opening in the skin. Next, the doctor will see the opening of the fistula track and try to determine how deep it is. In a majority of cases, pus drains out of the external opening. In some cases, a fistula may not be visible on your skin surface. Therefore, to diagnose a fistula, your surgical gastroenterologist may perform additional tests such as an anoscopy or colonoscopy. Your gastro surgeon may also order an ultrasound or MRI of the anal region to get a better picture of the fistula tract.

Anal fistula Treatment in Hyderabad

The gold standard treatment for anal fistula is surgery. It is almost always recommended by well-experienced and expert colorectal surgeons and surgical gastroenterologists specializing in colorectal surgery. An expert colorectal surgeon’s goal is to perform surgery tactically and diligently to get rid of the fistula while protecting the anal sphincter muscles. If these muscles get damaged bowel incontinence may result.

Best fistula treatment in Hyderabad

The aim of the surgery for an anal fistula is to ensure that the anal sphincter muscle is safe during the procedure. The most common procedure is fistulotomy which involves cutting and opening the fistula along its whole length so that it heals as a flat scar. It is the most effective procedure for most fistulas.

The other procedures for the treatment of fistula include Seton technique, advancement flap procedure (the fistula is covered with a flap, or piece of tissue, taken from the rectum, like a trap door), LIFT procedure, LASER surgery for fistula, Endoscopic ablation and the insertion of a bioprosthetic plug.

Meet Dr. Datta Ram U for the best treatment of anal fistula. You can discuss all of your treatment options with Dr. Datta Ram U.

Abdominal Adhesions – Symptoms & Treatment

Abdominal adhesions causes, symptoms, and treatment

Abdominal adhesions are nothing but bands of tissue or scar-like tissue that form in the abdomen. The scar-like tissue forms between one or more abdominal organs or between the abdominal wall and organs.

Normally abdominal organs surfaces and abdominal wall do not stick together. But abdominal adhesions can make the surfaces of abdominal organs and abdominal wall stick together. This happens when you move. This may lead to abdominal pain and other symptoms.

Abdominal adhesions causes intestinal blockage or obstruction and other complications that may lead to symptoms. They can pull, twist, kink, or compress other organs or intestines.

Abdominal Adhesions Causes

Abdominal adhesions are common as they mostly develop in people who have had abdominal surgery done. In most cases, abdominal adhesions do not develop any symptoms or complications. Inflammatory conditions and abdominal infections can also cause abdominal adhesions. The other causes of abdominal adhesions may include peritonitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, diverticular disease, and Crohn’s disease.

Long-term peritoneal dialysis to treat kidney failure can also cause abdominal adhesions.

What are the symptoms of abdominal adhesions?

The signs and symptoms associated with abdominal adhesions may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, not passing gas, constipation, and bloating. Intestinal obstruction or blockage may lead to peritonitis. This may lead to fever and a fast heart rate. Chronic abdominal pain is the major symptom.

Complications associated with Abdominal adhesions

Intestinal obstruction can be a life-threatening complication associated with abdominal adhesion. Due to obstruction or partial or complete blockage of fluids, air, food, or stool through the intestines death of intestinal tissues occur. It can also lead to the infection of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis).

Intestinal obstruction can cause severe complications. Therefore, people with chronic abdominal pain, passing no gas, fluids, or stool should seek medical attention immediately.

In women, abdominal adhesions can lead to infertility by blocking or compressing the reproductive organs.

Diagnosis of Abdominal Adhesions

Doctors take into account the medical history of the patient including the past history of abdominal conditions or surgery. During a physical examination, the doctor checks for pain and tenderness in the abdomen and uses a stethoscope to listen to abdominal sounds. To make a diagnosis of the condition, the doctor may order blood tests and imaging tests (abdominal ultrasound and CT).

Bottom Line

Abdominal adhesions are less common after laparoscopic surgery than after open surgery. If abdominal adhesions don’t cause symptoms or complications, they typically don’t need treatment. To release adhesions that are causing chronic abdominal pain and other symptoms -such as intestinal obstruction, surgical gastroenterologists perform surgery. Doctors who treat abdominal adhesions are specialists in abdominal adhesion surgery.

If you have any queries pertaining to abdominal adhesions, meet me personally.

Esophageal Spasms – Causes, Risk & Treatment

Causes of esophageal spasms: Esophagus has muscular walls and is lined with mucus membranes. Esophageal muscles contract abnormally causing esophageal spasms. When this occurs, the food reaches your stomach with great difficulty. Esophageal spasms are rare.

Causes of esophageal spasms

Esophageal muscles flex and relax normally. A wave of coordinated contractions lets the food or liquid move down the stomach. This process is known as peristalsis. If a person has esophageal spasms, contractions don’t work normally. Thus, abnormal contractions make it difficult for food or liquid to move through the esophagus.

The following are the main types of esophageal spasms:

Distal or diffuse esophageal spasm: In this type, abnormal muscle contractions occur in the lower part of the esophagus. Regurgitation occurs, wherein swallowed liquid or food comes back up the esophagus.

Nutcracker esophagus:  Strong or forceful muscle contractions cause jackhammer or nutcracker esophagus. It is associated with pain while swallowing food or liquid. The pain is often severe and it may feel like squeezing chest pain.

Why you should not ignore esophageal spasms?

Esophageal spasms cause pain and swallowing difficulty. Though they are disruptive, esophageal spasms are not considered as a serious health issue.

Swallowing difficulty, heartburn and pain are often the signs of chronic acid reflux or GERD. It is therefore better to evaluate the causes of your symptoms by consulting an experienced gastroenterologist.

Esophageal spasms symptoms mimic the symptoms of a heart attack

Take action immediately and seek emergency medical care if you experience:

  • Severe chest pain
  • Tightness or heaviness in the chest
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Irregular heartbeat or heart palpitations
  • Cold sweats
  • Pain in the shoulder arm or neck
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea or vomiting

Causes of esophageal spasms

The exact cause of esophageal spasms is not clear. They are however believed to be related to abnormal functioning of the nerves that control esophageal muscles.

Anxiety and depression, very hot or cold foods, certain drinks, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and certain treatments – such as esophageal surgery, and radiation therapy can also cause esophageal spasms.

Diagnosis of esophageal spasms

Esophageal manometry test measures rhythmic muscle contractions (the force and coordination of esophageal muscles) of the esophagus. It also measures the functioning of the esophageal sphincter (flex and relaxation of the esophageal sphincter during a swallow).

Upper endoscopy: A gastroenterologist uses a flexible thin tube mounted with a light and camera (an endoscope) to see the inside of the esophagus and stomach. The doctor collects a tissue sample (biopsy) during an endoscopy procedure for laboratory analysis to test for other esophageal diseases.

Barium swallow

A doctor orders X-rays after a person drinks or swallows a chalky liquid (barium solution) to look for any narrowing (stricture) in the esophagus. The liquid coats and fills the inner lining of the digestive tract. This helps the gastroenterologist to see the silhouette of the esophagus, stomach, and upper intestine. While barium moves down the esophagus, it slows down or gets stuck in a narrowing or stricture is present in the esophagus.

Bottom Line

Esophageal spasms can sometimes cause symptoms that look very similar to a heart attack. A heart attack can be life-threatening if not treated right away. Therefore, if you experience severe chest pain and breathing difficulty seek emergency medical care straightaway.

Consult an experienced gastroenterologist if you experience the signs and symptoms of esophageal spasms. An underlying cause such as GERD could be the cause of this condition. Therefore, treating the underlying cause is the first line of defense against the symptoms. It is also important to adopt healthy habits and lifestyles – such as managing weight, healthy eating, and proper rest. In most cases, though the cause of esophageal spasms remains unknown they can usually be treated effectively.

If you have any symptoms or issues related to esophageal spasms, meet Dr. Datta Ram U personally for an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

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